By Thomas Lehmann
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Additional resources for A grammar of modern Tamil (Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture publication)
35 Singular imperative (negative) The negative singular imperative form consists of the verb stem, to which the negative allomorph -aat is suffixed, followed by the euphonic suffix -ee: (110) verb stem + -aat + -ee See the following examples for illustration: (111) tuuhk-aat-ee 'do not sleep' keet-k-aat-ee ' do not ask' nata-kk-aat-ee ' do not walk' In these forms the imperative and second person morpheme (108) are also realized by a zero morph. Only the negative morpheme is overtly realized by the negative allomorph -aat.
Positive indicative verb forms are marked for the category of tense, person, number, and gender + status. Negative indicative verb forms are, however, not marked in the same way for these categories as the Positive indicative forms are. There is no one-to-one correspondence between positive and negative indicative forms. 40 As mentioned above, positive indicative verb forms are marked for the categories of tense, person, number, and gender + status. 27-31—with a tense morpheme and with three morphemes of person, number, and gender + status as shown in the following representation: (120) verb stem + tense + person + number + gender Alternatively, the person, number, gender morphemes can be analyzed as one pronominal morpheme with the feature content of person, number, gender and status: (121) verb stem + tense + pronominal In the phonological realization of these morphemes, the tense morpheme is realized by a number of allomorphs in the case of the majority of verbs, or by the morphological process of doubling of a verb stem final consonant in the case of a few verbs.
Consider the following examples: 52 (107) A GRAMMAR OF MODERN TAMIL a. ' : b. ' The verb stem utai in sentence a. is affective, while the verb stem utai in sentence b. is effective. In this case the semantic features of affectivity vs. effectivity are not morphophonologically realized in the verb stem. In both cases the morphophonemic shape of the verb stem is identical. Notice, however, that the affective verb form in sentence a. contains a single obstruent in the affix-initial position, that is the tense morph, and the effective verb form in sentence b.
A grammar of modern Tamil (Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture publication) by Thomas Lehmann