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By Oscar E. Swan

ISBN-10: 0893572969

ISBN-13: 9780893572969

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In such instances, one usually follows grammatical gender, although reference by natural gender may also be encountered. Thus, ˚uczek Bug used as a girl’s slang nickname will most often take masculine agreement. The same goes for babsztyl hag, kopciuch slattern, kotek chick, and words like maƒkut lefty or mazgaj dawdler when used of women. Words for barnyard animals usually have masculine and feminine names corresponding to a difference in sex; see kura hen, kogut rooster; krowa cow, byk bull. Other than for these general principles, gender is assigned to nouns on an arbitrary basis as far as their reference to objects is concerned.

3. Stems in j with Nsg. in -a regularly take Gpl. in -y/i: nadzieja hope, Gpl. nadziei; ostoja bulwark, Gpl. ostoi; konferencja conference, G p l . konferencji. This rule extends to nouns where j is spelled i: hierarchia “hi-er-ar-chja” hierarchy, Gpl. hierarchii “hje-ar-chji”. An older tradition used -y/ij here: lekcyj, hierarchij. Exceptions: knieja forest Gpl. kniej, ˝mija adder (snake), Gpl. ˝mij; zgraja gang Gpl. zgraj. Some soft-stems in -a take Gpl. in -y/i, including in particular many words in -la: czapla heron, dola fate, lot, Gpl.

Pl. królewnych) V królewno królewny See also further below under last names in -owa and -ówna. 5. Feminine-gender adjectival nouns. Some feminine-form adjectives are used as nouns. These include names for lines and numbers (presumably in original agreement with linia line and liczba number), and various personal nouns: sieczna secant Sg. N sieczna G siecznej D siecznej A siecznà I siecznà L siecznej V sieczna Pl. sieczne siecznych siecznym sieczne siecznymi siecznych sieczne znajoma acquaintance Sg.

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A grammar of contemporary Polish by Oscar E. Swan

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